Sony MDRV6 Studio Monitor Headphones 1/2 price (be quick!)

The “gold standard” for podcasting and radio studio headphones are on sale for half-price at, but you need to be quick! Worth getting as a backup in case your current ones fail (as mine just have — not this model!)

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The AfterPod Book Club!

Here are some of the books mentioned on the show:


How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy, by Stephen Witt

So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed, by Jon Ronson

The Norma letter from the July 2nd show

From: Norma XXXXXX <xx@xxxxx.xx>

Date: Jun 28, 2015, 6:47 AM

Subj: Umm, Facts Straight?

Sirs, excuuuse me, but I just heard a statement on your June 22nd show, regarding racism in Britain,

claiming that black people were only imported to work at paid jobs in Britain, “because there weren’t enough people available to do certain jobs.” Then you went on to blame America for black slavery. A very fine point, as Britain was deeply involved in the slave trade and profited hugely from it.
You seem to say that America has race problems because of its history of slavery. Well, why wouldn’t that be just as relevant to Britain? Mention was made of this being a post-WWII happenstance. Well, you can’t skip over Britain’s earlier involvement in slavery, yet go back into America’s history of slavery and compare it as if it had been a post-WWII reality.
And check this out:

Racism on the rise in Britain (the Guardian – May 27, 2014) — New data from NatCen’s authoritative British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, obtained by the Guardian, shows that after years of increasing tolerance, the percentage of people who describe themselves as prejudiced against those of other races has risen overall since 2001.

The establishment of the Royal African Company in 1672 formalised the Slave Trade under a royal charter and gave a monopoly to the port of London. The ports of Bristol and Liverpool, in particular, lobbied to have the charter changed and, in 1698, the monopoly was taken away.

British involvement expanded rapidly in response to the demand for labour to cultivate sugar in Barbados and other BritishWest Indian islands. In the 1660s, the number of slaves taken from Africa in British ships averaged 6,700 per year. By the 1760s, Britain was the foremost European country engaged in the Slave Trade. Of the 80,000 Africans chained and shackled and transported across to the Americas each year, 42,000 were carried by British slave ships.

The profits gained from chattel slavery helped to finance the Industrial Revolution and the Caribbean islands became the hub of the British Empire. The sugar colonies were Britain’s most valuable colonies. By the end of the eighteenth century, four million pounds came into Britain from its West Indian plantations, compared with one million from the rest of the world.

Who benefited from the Transatlantic Slave Trade?

In the Transatlantic Slave Trade, triangle ships never sailed empty and some people made enormous profits.  This Slave Trade was the richest part of Britain’s trade in the 18th century. James Houston, who worked for a firm of 18th-century slave merchants, wrote, “What a glorious and advantageous trade this is… It is the hinge on which all the trade of this globe moves.”

Between 1750 and 1780, about 70% of the government’s total income came from taxes on goods from its colonies. The money made on the Transatlantic Slave Trade triangle was vast and poured into Britain and other European countries involved in slavery, changing their landscapes forever. In Britain, those who had made much of their wealth from the trade built fine mansions, established banks such as the Bank of England and funded new industries.

Who profited?

  • British slave ship owners – some voyages made 20-50% profit. Large sums of money were made by ship owners who never left England.
  • British Slave Traders – who bought and sold enslaved Africans.
  • Plantation Owners – who used slave labour to grow their crops. Vast profits could be made by using unpaid workers.Planters often retired to Britain with the profits they made and had grand country houses built for them. Some planters used the money they had made to become MPs. Others invested their profits in new factories and inventions, helping to finance the Industrial Revolution.
  • The factory owners in Britain – who had a market for their goods. Textiles from Yorkshire and Lancashire were bought by slave-captains to barter with. One half of the textiles produced in Manchester were exported to Africa and half to the West Indies. In addition, industrial plants were built to refine the imported raw sugar. Glassware was needed to bottle the rum.
  • West African leaders involved in the trade – who captured people and sold them as slaves to Europeans.
  • The portsBristol and Liverpool became major ports through fitting out slave ships and handling the cargoes they brought back. Between 1700 and 1800, Liverpool’s population rose from 5000 to 78,000.
  • Bankers – banks and finance houses grew rich from the fees and interest they earned from merchants who borrowed money for their long voyages.
  • Ordinary people – the Transatlantic Slave Trade provided many jobs for people back in Britain. Many people worked in factories which sold their goods to West Africa. These goods would then be traded for enslaved Africans. Birmingham had over 4000 gun-makers, with 100,000 guns a year going to slave-traders.
  • Others worked in factories that had been set up with money made from the Slave Trade. Many trades-people bought a share in a slave ship. Slave labour also made goods, such as sugar, more affordable for people living in Britain.

Thanks. Venting is fun (sorta).